This talk will introduce a challenging research program, the Japan Science & Technology Agency's Moonshot Goal 1 on “Realization of a society in which human beings can be free from limitations of body, brain, space, and time by 2050.” The program was determined by the Japanese Plenary session of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (“CSTI”), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (“MEXT”), and JST. It consists of three human-centered R&D projects on Cybernetic Avatars, which will support the creation of cloud infrastructure and core technologies that enable a diverse range of remotely operated social human activities. They will help us adapt and adjust to a new human-centered ‘cybernetic avatar life,’ where these avatars will augment the physical, cognitive, and perceptual capabilities of people from a range of socio-economic and other backgrounds. The cybernetic avatars will be developed from the viewpoint of not only of the providers, but also the users in future society. The project will also conduct basic research on human stress caused by the avatars — and how to relieve this — while taking into account ethical, legal, social, and economic (ELSE) issues.